Petroleum extraction is a huge project, and it will be accompanied by various types of wastewater. These wastewaters contain a large amount of harmful substances, which not only endanger the environment, but also affect people’s life and health. Petroleum extraction technology must continuously improve its professionalism and practicality, highlight the concept of environmental protection, and achieve real energy saving and consumption reduction effects, which can not be separated from the effective treatment of wastewater. Since suspended solids, emulsified oil and other harmful substances in wastewater occupy a relatively high proportion, professional technology can reduce the proportion of a class of substances, improve the quality of wastewater treatment, and contribute to the improvement of oil extraction technology.
1. Problem Existing in Wastewater Treatment Technology of Petroleum Exploitation.
1) Polymer chemical flooding reduces oil removal effect.
Polymer chemical flooding is a common wastewater treatment technology, which will face problems such as difficult operation and complicated process in the application process. Although the use of polymer chemical flooding can convert the original oil into emulsified oil, but a the same time, it is more difficult to remove due to the increase of polymer and active agent, and the gravity deoiling technology will lose its proper deoiling effect. Moreover, the materials recovered by polymer chemical flooding are often very limited, which reduces the oil remove efficiency.
2) Pollutants are not easily removed.
The pollutants in the wastewater produced by many oil exploitations have increasingly complex components, such as suspended solids, oil displacing agents. These two components are very complex, making the performance of the pollutants very stable and not easy to remove.
3) There are defects in the treatment of heavy oil wastewater from steam flooding.
Although the treatment of heavy oil wastewater by steam flooding can achieve a certain effect, it is not easy to deal with the silica in the wastewater. At the same time, the recovery of heavy oil wastewater by steam flooding will reduce the treatment efficiency and prolong the treatment time.
2. Application of Wastewater Treatment Technology in Petroleum Exploitation.
1) Membrane Filtration treatment
Membrane filtration treatment technology is a common technology in oil extraction wastewater treatment, and it is also a key content to improve water quality and oil removal effect. The principle of physical treatment technology is to treat suspended matter in wastewater by means of microfiltration and nanofiltration with the help of membrane separation. HONGTEK OPF Series Oilfield Pleated Filter has high and stable filtration efficiency for liquids. It has multi-layer filter materials, taking into account the advantages of structural surface filtration and depth filtration. It meets the requirements of low pressure drop and high dirt holding capacity, which is suitable for oil field water injection filtration.
2) Chemical treatment
Different from physical treatment technology, chemical treatment technology mainly uses corresponding chemical reagents to chemically react with the substances to be treated, so as to achieve the treatment effect. Chemical treatment technology includes many methods, which can be selected according to the actual situation. Among chemical treatment technologies, precipitation technology, neutralization technology and chemical oxidation technology are frequently used, which can effectively treat pollutants and suspended solids in wastewater.
3) Biological treatment
Biological treatment technology mainly uses enzymes in microorganisms to absorb bacteria and heavy metals, and then decomposes them through enzymes to make these pollutants useful and usable substances. This technology can also be called biodegradation and can be widely used in wastewater treatment.
3. Prospects for Treatment Technology of Petroleum Exploitation Wastewater
At present, oil extraction wastewater treatment technology level need further development and promotion. The problems existing in oil extraction wastewater treatment technology can not be ignored. First of all, to improve the effect and efficiency of oil removal, reduce follow-up problems and technical costs, more effective coagulation demulsifiers can be used to make wastewater treatment more effective. Second, it is necessary to strengthen the research on coalescence materials, so that the coalescence degreasing technology can achieve the effect of efficiency treatment.